Any errors and omissions are, of course, my own. Other journals promoting scholarship on translation and French include Babel: revue internationale de la traduction — and Palimpsestes —both founded in France. Not surprisingly, some of the main centres for translation research are in Canada, for example at Concordia University in Montreal, the University of Montreal, and the University of Ottawa.
Today, translation studies is a vast interdiscipline extending from the arts and humanities through the social sciences to computer science. It focuses in particular on translation theory and literary translation, the history of translation, and linguistic approaches to translation studies. Notable subfields excluded from the survey are the more applied areas of machine translation, translation in specialist fields, localization, and interpreting studies.
Other regrettable omissions include recent research in the emerging field of cognitive translation studies, as well as dating Champaign translation on the place of translation in education, a topic that deserves more attention. This section discusses current scholarship on literary translation alongside the most relevant theoretical developments, all the while maintaining emphasis on French.
There is no space here to provide a comprehensive overview of developments in the general field of translation theory. There are numerous explanations for this, including, ironically, a linguistic barrier: the fact that for a long time the work of some of the most influential theorists remained untranslated cannot be underestimated. Michael Schreiber, in an insightful article on the reception of French translation theory suggests another reason, namely that there has not yet been any real canonization of theoretical work within the French tradition.
The relative separation of the general and the French fields means that there is considerable variation in the dating Champaign translation that translation theory is conceptualized. Where Pym uses a series of paradigmatic shifts to explore the various theories, French scholars often employ a tripartite division between theories that are prescriptive, descriptive, and prospective. Although he did not treat translation per se directly, Pierre Bourdieu had an impact on the field of translation studies by inspiring the sociological approach that is very popular today.
Some of the new branches that bridge translation theory and literary translation include the study of what appear to be special kinds of translation, such as retranslation, 17 self-translation, 18 and translation at the margins, all of which contribute to undermining some common binary oppositions. This is illustrated most obviously by research on translation in the postcolonial context; francophone Africa is one of the strongest centres of interest today.
The expansion away from the traditional literary canon to include other genres can also be seen as part of the move from centre to periphery. Roger Baines has demonstrated the value of studying stage translation, with its two moments of transformation: textual translation, and adaptation for the stage. A recent issue of Meta highlights the ideological manipulation that takes place in this domain.
The application of sociocultural theory to the study of translation means that a whole host of individual themes has been explored in the context of translation. In the general field, for example, Judith Woodsworth cites important volumes on translation and power, translation and identity, and translation and postcolonialism.
Ballard's edited volume Censure et traduction draws attention to two kinds of censorship that sometimes go unrecognized: self-censorship imposed by the translator, and different kinds of invisible censorship present in the West today.
The expansion and diversification of the field of translation studies has led to a renewed interest in the historical dimension. Research on the history of French translation theory has played an important role in showcasing theoretical texts that predate the official origins of the academic discipline.
In particular, publications by Lieven D'hulst and Ballard have contributed to our understanding of translation theory in the early modern period. Co-directors Yves Chevrel and Jean-Yves Masson anticipate that it will lead to a rethinking of the periodization of the history of translation, 34 and it is likely to complicate some of the generalizations that are used to link individual centuries to particular theoretical movements.
Since the s greater interest has been shown in the history of French translation practice.
Policies & procedures
The substantial quantity of material means that there have been few historical overviews, with scholars preferring to concentrate on particular periods, genres, and translators. With the growth of the discipline, we are beginning to see histories that take a broader perspective. This includes Dotoli's overview of the theory and practice of translation from the Middle Ages to the present day.
This field is likely to continue its expansion to for trans- or supranational traditions and non-literary genres, and to explore new lines of inquiry such as the role of translation in general history.
Linguistic approaches have been subject to serious criticism, particularly on the part of theorists who advocate prescriptive or prospective approaches to translation and who are most concerned with literary, philosophical, and poetic translation. Today this view has begun to look somewhat out of date. Andrew Chesterman has played an important role in challenging scholars using an empirical approach to ensure that their work really contributes to advancing the field. Sara Laviosa has pointed to several recent lines of inquiry that are based on linguistic analysis but that go far beyond description, including a developing interest in ideology, and the new subfield of translation stylistics.
A plethora of recent publications on translation studies and linguistics indicates that this is an area of central concern in the francophone sphere.
There are, of course, many different linguistic approaches to translation studies, but corpus-based translation studies CTS has emerged as the most fruitful. It developed out of a desire to apply the methods of corpus linguistics to descriptive translation studies. Although the term was originally inspired by linguistic universals, it is generally no longer understood in an absolute sense.
Common features of translated language include influence from the source language, the underrepresentation of features unique to the target language, explicitation, and a reduction of linguistic variation. There has been a ificant amount of research into French translation from a linguistic perspective, with many of the corpus-based studies originating in northern European or in multilingual francophone countries. Recent publications on translation and linguistics all address directly the question of the articulation of the relationship between these two disciplines.
In Ballard and Al Kaladi's edited volume, for example, a group of papers uses linguistics to rethink classic translation problems, including metaphor, empathy markers, and tense and aspect. This includes work by Charlotte Bosseaux on point of view, 55 by Mairi McLaughlin on dislocated constructions, 56 and by Kristiina Taivalkoski-Shilov on reported speech.
There is little doubt that translation studies will continue its expansion along similar lines, with increasing interdisciplinarity accompanied by a shift of balance from the centre to the periphery and from the canon to the non-canonical.
As progress is made in each subfield, we shall begin to see moments of dating Champaign translation, and taking stock has already begun for translation in the medieval period.
A crucial moment in the discipline will come when this stage has been reached in a of different areas, because it will allow higher-level generalizations to be captured. Although the long process of institutionalization has begun for translation studies as an academic discipline, there is still uncertainty about its position.
This is felt most keenly in officially monolingual countries such as France, which have traditionally been less receptive to the study of translation. We might hope that, for the future of translation studies and French, this bias will be mitigated by the recognition today that it is monolingualism that is the exception.
Baker, 4 vols London: Routledge,i1—23 p. Vinay and J. Schreiber Frankfurt a.
Lawrence Venuti, in Translation Changes Everything: Theory and Practice London: Routledge,explains that his own thinking has evolved since the s and that he now rejects the instrumentalism in Berman's approach p. La Retraductioned.
See, for instance, Paul F. Woodsworth, 2nd edn Amsterdam: John Benjamins,pp. These include Europe et traductioned. An online database is due to be published in Brewer, Brewer, can be linked to a general move in translation studies away from the traditional model of translation in monolingual nation states.
Cointre and A. Portraits de traducteursed. There is already a growing body of work on scientific and medical translation; see, for example, Traduire la science: hier et aujourd'huied. Mairi McLaughlin has also highlighted the value for translation studies of research on the history of news translation; see M.
Where Is It Going?
See, for instance, Traductologie, linguistique et traduction [see n. For an up-to-date assessment of the state and future of the corpus-based approach see Corpus-Based Translation Studies [see n.
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